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Complexity Of Text, Complexity Of Thoughtthoughtfull English

  1. Text complexity should be considered when selecting the linguistic supports as well as what you know about the language proficiency level and background knowledge of your ELLs. When looking at text complexity, teachers need to consider components through an ELL lens and not just what would be complex for English-only students.
  2. Analyze what makes that text complex using the Common Core model of text complexity (qualitative dimensions: clarity of purpose, structure, knowledge demands, language) Once they had determined the key ideas in the text, the teachers spent time analyzing the text using the Common Core model of text complexity.
  3. The purpose of the present study is to investigate text complexity progression in the reading texts of English textbooks published for senior high school students in Indonesia.

Text complexity called for at the time of the standards release1, this report expands upon the three-part model outlined in Appendix A of the CCSS in ELA/Literacy that blends quantitative and qualitative measures of text complexity with reader and task considerations. It also presents new field-tested tools.

Learn about the true difference between qualitative and quantitative evaluations and how this may affect your choice of texts.

How do you decide which books or resources to utilize in your classroom? As the concept of text complexity spreads, the decision process for choosing appropriate texts for the classroom may become more difficult. This is due to the fact that the newly rediscovered dedication to text complexity has forced educators to call into question which texts are being incorporated into the classroom.

For anyone who has recently attended professional development on the Common Core, the term text complexity will not sound foreign. But what are the new expectations for understanding text complexity and what is the difference between qualitative and quantitative evaluations when it comes to texts? This article will explore the new expectations for text complexity as well as how to assist in matching readers to the appropriate texts.

Quantitative Evaluation

Book levels have long been gauged by factors that have nothing to do with true text complexity. Instead, reading levels have been based on measureable factors such as word choice, sentence and syllable length, and vocabulary. Combined, these factors are referred to as the quantitative measurements for text complexity.

That is not to say that these factors are not important. If students confront too much difficulty in these areas, their reading will not be fluid, or they may even lack basic comprehension. In addition, research has consistently shown that the number one way to increase individual vocabulary is to read challenging texts. Clearly, the quantitative is important, but it cannot stand alone.

Qualitative Evaluation

By using a qualitative approach to gauging text complexity, a different set of factors are taken into account. The primary feature is level of meaning. This takes into consideration relevant themes, topics, and base knowledge needed in order to comprehend the meaning of the text.

A prime example of this difference can be seen in a novel such as The Outsiders. The sentence structure and vocabulary would most likely be gauged at a fifth-grade level. However, the topics, themes, and images described are meant for a more mature audience. The qualitative evaluation increases the complexity of the text.

Matching Readers with Texts

When taking both the quantitative and the qualitative evaluations into account, educators are much more capable of matching the appropriate texts to their student population. However, these two factors alone are not enough. The often overlooked variables that come into play when matching readers with texts lies in motivation, knowledge, and previous life experiences. In other words, we have to know our students. It becomes imperative to have a deep understanding of your student population if you are to find texts that will be meaningful to them—texts that hold the appropriate level of meaning and can make an impact.

Providing the Purpose

In order to get your pupils to appropriately engage with a text in a meaningful way, it is essential for you, the educator, to provide the appropriate framework of purpose. What is the intended learning outcome? Why should they read this book? What problem or issue are they responding to?

The best way to address these needs is to have a well-established essential question or big idea. This should be clear and in sight at all times in order to consistently remind the pupils of the focus. Also, a good amount of front-loading is critical. Use videos, images, newspaper articles, or any type of media that will provide a level of understanding necessary to become fully engaged with a text.

By incorporating qualitative, quantitative, and meaning-related considerations into your decision-making process, students will be more engaged in the material, and more prepared to tackle complex texts.

Additional Resources

Hallmark of the Common Core, The Importance of Text Dependent Questions, Mark As You Go

Complexity

Nominalisation

Formal written English uses nouns more than verbs. For example, 'judgement' rather than 'judge', 'development' rather than 'develop', 'admiration' rather than 'admire'. Changing a verb or other word into a noun is called nominalisation.

Complexity Of Text, Complexity Of Thoughtthoughtfull English

Instead of: Black ops 2 mods xbox 360 usb download.

This information enables us to formulate precise questions.

we would write:

This information enables the formulation of precise questions.

More examples are:

There appeared to be evidence of differential treatment of children.
This is reflected in our admiration for people who have made something of their lives, sometimes against great odds, and in our somewhat disappointed judgment of those who merely drift through life.
All airfields in the country would be nationalised, and the government would continue with the development of new aircraft as recommended by the Brabazon Committee.
Complexity Of Text, Complexity Of Thoughtthoughtfull English

Read the following text:

Reproduction with variation is a major characteristic of life. Without reproduction, life would quickly come to an end. The earliest single-celled organisms reproduced by duplicating their genetic material and then dividing in two. The two resulting daughter cells were identical to each other and to the parent cell, except for mutations that occurred during the process of gene duplication. Such errors, although rare, provided the raw material for biological evolution. The combination of reproduction and errors in the duplication of genetic material results in biological evolution, a change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms over time.

W. K. Purves, D. Sadava, G. H. Orians & H. C. Heller, Life: The science of biology, W. H. Freeman, 2004

and compare it to:

All organisms reproduce and sometimes when they reproduce, the children vary. This is an important characteristic of life. If organisms did nor reproduce, life would quickly come to an end. How did the earliest single-celled organisms reproduce? They duplicated their genetic material and then they divided in two. Two daughter cells resulted from this process; they were identical to each other and to the parent cell. But sometimes as the genes duplicated, they changed or mutated. These errors are not very common but they provide the basic material for life to evolve. So when the genetic material duplicates, they reproduce and they make errors. As a result, there is a change in what the genes are composed of. When these processes combine, life evolve.

The first text is more academic. The second text is longer. It has shorter sentences. It asks question and answers them. All these features are typical of spoken language.

Compare these sentences:

  1. Organisms reproduce. This is a major characteristic of life.
  2. Reproduction is a major characteristic of life.

In general they mean the same, but sentence 2 is expressed more concisely. It uses the word “reproduction”, whereas sentence 1 uses the word ”reproduce'. Here the word “reproduce” is a verb. It would change to “reproduces” if “organisms” changed to “an organism”. “Reproduction” is a noun made from the verb “reproduce”; we call this process nominalisation.

Exercise

Complete the table below by finding other nominalisations in the first text above, based on the verbs in the second text.

Verb Nominalisation
reproducereproduction
vary
duplicate
divide
mutate
combine

Here are some more verbs that are commonly nominalised. Add more to the table from your own reading.

Verb Nominalisation
reproducereproduction
adaptadaptation
contract contraction
expandexpansion
reactreaction
rotate rotation

However, not all nominalised words end in “tion” . Examples are:

  1. The discovery of this general pattern generated the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.
  2. It serves as a template for the synthesis of proteins.
  3. The increase occurs because the number of individuals an area can support increases with productivity, and with larger population sizes, species extinction rates are lower. But why should species richness decrease when productivity is still higher?
  4. This rise in body temperature inhibits the growth of the invading pathogen. Cytokines may also attract phagocytic cells to the site of injury and initiate a specific response to the pathogen.

Others are: -ity ability, similarity, complexity; -ness blindness, darkness, preparedness; -ment development, encouragement; -ship friendship; -age mileage; -ery robbery, bribery; -al arrival; -ance assistance, resemblance.

There are also other ways to nominalise:

  • Some verbs are also used as nouns: plan, increase, influence, survey.
  • Some involve a slight change: sell → sale, choose → choice.
  • You can use the '-ing' form of the verb: selling, developing.

Furthermore, you can make nominalisations from adjectives by adding -ness, -ism, or -ity. Add more to the table from your own reading.

Complexity Of Text Complexity Of Thoughtthoughtfull English Language

AdjectiveNominalisation
appropriateappropriateness
activeactivism
complexcomplexity
desirabledesirability
scepticalscepticism
willingwillingness

Exercise

Complexity Of Text Complexity Of Thoughtthoughtfull English Version

Text,

Try this or this.

Nominalisations used in phrases with “of”.

Nominalisations often function as the head of a nominal group. Often associated with nominalisation is the occurrence of prepositional phrases, introduced by of:

judgment of those

Complexity Of Text Complexity Of Thoughtthoughtfull English Language Arts

treatment of children

Complexity Of Text Complexity Of Thoughtthoughtfull English Translator

development of new aircraft